Wonderful World

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall & Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum

Jimie 2022. 10. 10. 10:16


Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum ( 中山陵; pinyin: Zhōngshān Líng)




景点地址 江苏省南京市玄武区石象路7号











중화인민공화국 광저우의 중산기념당, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall

중화민국 타이베이국부기념관, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall

싱가포르 중산기념당, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall


1866년 11월 12일 중국 남방의 광둥성(廣東省) 샹산현(香山縣) 췌이헝촌(翠亨村)에서 태어났다. 샹산현은 현재의 중산시(中山市)에 속하며, 주강(珠江)의 하구인 홍콩(香港)에서 약 80여 킬로미터 거리에 있는 주강삼각주 농촌마을이었다.


1892년 흥중회(興中會)를 만들었고 일본 망명 후 돌아와 다시 중국동맹회를 결성했다.

 1911년 임시정부가 수립되자 임시 총통에 추대되었고 1912년 1월 1일 중화민국을 수립했다. 

1921년 광둥 군정부가 재건되면서 다시 대통령에 추대되었으나 1925년 병사하였다.

1923~25년 중국의 실질적인 통치자였다


쑨원의 정치이념은 중국혁명의 이념적 토대가 된 삼민주의로 요약된다.



( 翻拍自明信片 )

中山陵是國父 孫中山 先生陵墓,位於南京市東郊紫金山南麓,東鄰靈谷寺、西毗明孝陵,

先生民國 14 3 月在北京逝世,中國國民黨遵照遺願,在南京為他修建陵墓,

中山陵由呂彥直設計,民國 15 1 月開始興建,18 6 1 日中國國民黨將 孫 先生遺體奉安於中山陵。



Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (Chinese: 中山陵; pinyin: Zhōngshān Líng) is situated at the foot of the second peak of Purple Mountain in Nanjing, China. Construction of the tomb started in January 1926, and was finished in spring of 1929. The architect was Lü Yanzhi, who died shortly after it was finished. His representative and project partner was his close friend Huang Tanpu.


Dr. Sun was born in Guangdong province of China on 12 November 1866, and died in 1925 in Beijing, China. On 23 April 1929, the Chinese government appointed He Yingqin to be in charge of laying Dr. Sun to rest. On 26 May, the coffin departed from Beijing, and on 28 May, it arrived in Nanjing. On 1 June 1929, Dr. Sun was buried there. Sun, considered to be the "Father of Modern China" both in mainland China and in Taiwan, fought against the imperial Qing government and after the 1911 revolution ended the monarchy, and founded the Republic of China.


Republic of China (1912–1949) - Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search 1912–1949 country in Asia For the Republic of China since 1949, see Taiwan. Republic of China中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoAnthem:  National seal:中華民國之璽"Seal of the Republi



Selection of the design

                                     Area map, Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 2013.

A committee decided to host a design competition in order to collect designs for the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. The committee put advertisements in the newspapers on 5 May 1925, inviting architects and designers at home and abroad to send their designs. In exchange for a 10 yuan charge, the committee would provide the designer with 12 pictures of the site. The design would have to adhere to guidelines. It had to be done in a traditional Chinese style that also evoked a modern design with special and memorial substance. Not only should it evoke the Chinese architectural spirit, but also add creativity. Designers were required to insure that the proposed construction costs within 300,000 yuan (the final cost exceeded 3,000,000 Yuan). Over 40 proposals were received. On 20 September 1925, the committee convened in Shanghai, and unanimously selected Lu Yanzhi's proposal.

The mausoleum was designed by Lu Yanzhi and completed by Poy Gum Lee between 1926 and 1929.



                                                                          Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen.

Reclining on a mountain slope, the majestic mausoleum blends the styles of traditional imperial tombs and modern architecture. Lying on the mountainside, the vault is more than 700 meters (2,300 ft) away from the paifang on the square below, which is the entrance of the mausoleum. There is a three-tier stone stand on which a huge bronze ding, an ancient Chinese vessel symbolizing power, perches. To the north of the square, the paifang towers high. Beyond is the 480-meter (1,570 ft) and 50-meter (160 ft)-wide stairway which has 392 stairs leading to the vault. On both sides, pine, cypress, and ginkgo trees guard the way. At the end of the stairway is a gate which is 16 meters (52 ft) high and 27 meters (89 ft) wide. The tri-arched marble gate is inscribed with the personal motto of Dr. Sun, with four Chinese characters written by him, "Tian Xia Wei Gong" ("天下爲公") which means "What is under heaven is for all". Inside the gate, there is a pavilion in which a 9-meter (30 ft) stele is set, which is a memorial monument set by the Kuomintang (KMT). A few stairs up is the sacrificial hall and the vault.

                                               Ceiling of the sacrificial hall, displaying the flag of the Kuomintang.

In front of the sacrificial hall there stands a pair of huabiao, ancient Chinese ornamental columns, which are 12.6 meters high. The sacrificial hall is actually a palace of 30 meters (98 ft) in length, 25 meters (82 ft) in width, and 29 meters (95 ft) in height. In the center of the hall a 4.6-meter (15 ft)-high statue of Dr. Sun sits. The statue was sculptured out of Italian white marble. The hall's ceiling features the flag of the Kuomintang. Biographical information on Dr. Sun is available to visitors in the hall. North of the hall lies the bell-shaped vault, wherein lies the marble false sarcophagus of Dr. Sun. Dr Sun's body is interred in a burial chamber 5m below the marble false sarcophagus in a bronze coffin.

Architectural influence of the Mausoleum's design is evident in Taiwan's Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall.

High profile visits

                                 Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang at Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in 1930s

In a historical documentary,[2] Chiang Kai Shek, former President of the Republic of China, officiated the opening and paid his visit to Mausoleum reporting his victory of the Northern Expedition to unify China in 1929. Chiang also made a second visit in summer of 1946 after the conclusion of the Second World War to report the victory for his cause that mainland China was once again in Chinese sovereignty.

On 27 April 2005, Kuomintang (KMT) Chairman Lien Chan, his wife, and other KMT members visited the Mausoleum. It was the first visit of KMT members to the site since 1949.

On 15 November 2006, a visit was made to the Mausoleum by Dr. Sun's granddaughter, Sun Huiying, who was by then over eighty years old.

In May 2008, Wu Po-hsiung became the first ruling KMT Chairman to visit the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum since 1949. There were concerns that the 392 steps leading to the tomb would be too taxing given Wu's leg injuries.

On 12 February 2014, Wang Yu-chi became the first ROC government official in office to visit the site after the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949.

On 31 October 2016, KMT Chairwoman Hung Hsiu-chu visited the mausoleum during her mainland trip for the Cross-strait Peace Development Forum.[citation needed]


In 1981, Lily Sun, a granddaughter of Sun Yat-sen, visited the mausoleum. The flag of the KMT had been removed from the ceiling at the time of her visit, but was later restored. In May 2011 on another visit, she was surprised to find the four characters "General Rules of Meetings" (會議通則), a document that Sun wrote in reference to Robert's Rules of Order had been removed from a stone carving.


Ceiling of the sacrificial hall, displaying the flag of the Kuomintang

Marble sarcophagus

Sun Yat-sen Sacrificial Hall information


Statue in the Mausoleum, Kuomintang flag on the ceiling

Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing


1 May 2011 (Labour Day)


The Entrance Gate